Mathew A. Webb1,2, Darren Kidd1, Rhys Stickler1, Andrew Pirie3

1Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment, Prospect, TAS, Australia

2School of Life and Environmental Sciences & Sydney Institute of Agriculture, The University of Sydney, Eveleigh, NSW, Australia

3Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture/School of Agricultural Science at the University of Tasmania, Hobart, 7005, Tas, Australia

Corresponding author: E-mail:



As part of the Tasmanian government’s AgriVision 2050 plan and a means to facilitate expansion of the Tasmanian wine industry, a comprehensive climate based assessment of the state was implemented to delineate new areas suitable for wine grape production. This paper details how climate variables concerning Frost Risk (FR), Growing Degree Days (GDD) Growing Season Temperature (GST) and Rainfall (Rfall) were spatially quantified at high spatial resolutions (30m grid spacing) and combined to form suitability maps for delineating areas accommodative to table wine grape and sparkling wine grape production (Chardonnay and Pinot Noir cultivars). Evaluation of the climate mapping showed the methods were highly accurate in delineating each climate variable with validation statistics consistent with previous studies. The resulting suitability maps also aligned to the existing arrangements of operating vineyards as well expert knowledge provided by industry. The maps were made publically available through the Tasmanian government online mapping portal, LISTmap allowing for spatial interaction and querying. Since April 2018, the maps have received in excess of 27,000 ‘hits’ in the six months to September. Further updates are scheduled into the future to include soil and climate change information into the assessment framework.


Mathew Webb is Senior Spatial Analyst with the Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (DPIPWE) with over 10 years’ experience in the spatial science industry. He is heavily involved with delivering the mapping component of the Water for Profit Program, a $1.5m government funded program to deliver decisions support tools to improve farm profitability for irrigated agriculture. His recent work includes Table wine and Sparkling wine suitability mapping for the state using the latest advancements in high resolution climate mapping. He is currently a PhD candidate with the University of Sydney and has published scientific studies looking at high resolution climate mapping as applied to delineating frost risk, chilling hours and growing degree days in a viticulture context. His latest research now looks at how they can be applied for real-time and forecasting applications to assist growers in the digital age.


Amanda Douridas1, Mary Griffith1, Edwin Lentz1, Mary Ann Rose1, John Schoenhals2

1Ohio State University Extension, Ohio, United States

2Pioneer, Ohio, United States



Ohio residents have been calling for changes in agricultural practices since harmful algal blooms have disrupted recreational use of lakes and drinking water supplies in the Western Lake Erie Basin. These blooms are a result of phosphorus (P) loading into waterways from a number of sources, including agriculture fertilizer and manure use on fields. P loss only accounts for about 0.49 lb/A but equates to roughly 2 million pounds of P each year being dumped into the Basin. Regulations have been put in place to educate farmers on nutrient management and reduce nutrient losses. Three tools have been updated and developed to help farmers reduce P losses: 1.) Updated Tri-State Fertilizer Recommendations, 2.) Updated Ohio Phosphorus Risk Index tool, 3.) Field Application Resource Monitor. These tools address the source, rate and timing of nutrient applications. The cost of implementing these practices varies from farm to farm. Some farms may see no change to their budgets where other farms may see an increase in expenses.


Amanda Douridas currently serves as the Agriculture and Natural Resources Extension Educator in Champaign County where she focuses programs and research on farm management and agronomy. Champaign County is located in west central Ohio, USA and is primarily an agricultural county. According to the 2012 Census of Agriculture, 190,000 acres are in farmland and the market value of agricultural products sold is around $130,414,000. 873 farms average 218 acres. The average value of products sold per farm is $149,386 and the average net farm income is $56,258. Douridas received her B.S. and M.S. from The Ohio State University.


Alison Bailey1, Jacob Kambuta1, Thomas Perrier1

1Lincoln University



In recent years, the concept of sustainability has been a feature in agricultural policy discussions. In this context it is important to understand the rationale of farmer’s decisions in relation to the dimensions of sustainability – economic, social, and environmental. The aim of this project was to design a framework to determine the attitudes of individual dairy farmers in terms of financial and environmental management, and social responsibility.

The literature on indicators of sustainability for agriculture were reviewed. Selected indicators identified in the literature were then applied as the three sustainability pillars: economic, social and environmental in a two-stage interview process. Scoping interviews were conducted to finalise relevant indicators before a wider interview process based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process was undertaken.

The results show that social responsibility is a key factor, encompassing both an individual’s own work-life balance, but more importantly the positive management of employees. Profitability, evidenced through system resilience and productivity, is also a key driver of a farmers’ business. Protecting the environment is a necessity understood by farmers, in terms of both reducing detrimental environmental impact and to a lesser extent enhancing the wider environmental landscape.


Dr Alison Bailey is currently Professor of Farm Management at Lincoln University, New Zealand. She studied at Aberystwyth University, Wales, and worked at SRUC in Edinburgh, Cranfield University and the University of Reading before moving to New Zealand. Her research focuses on the analysis of agricultural production systems encompassing: (i) the financial and economic analyses of the impact on farm productivity of alternative farming systems, technology adoption and agri-environment policy, and (ii) the investigation of farmer decision making processes and motivations particularly associated with different farming systems and agri-environment management.


Kapil Arora1, Kelvin Leibold1, Daniel Andersen1

1Iowa State University Extension & Outreach, Ames

Corresponding Author: Kelvin Leibold,



Manure application costs were evaluated for tank wagon applicators (TWA) and drag line applicators (DLA) for transport distance increments of 1.6, 3.2, 4.8, 6.4, and 8.0 km. Certain fixed and variable costs were analyzed for three application rates of 37,416, 46,770, and 56,124 liters per hectare to calculate the total operating costs. Increase in transport distance caused the variable cost to increase for both transport methods leading to increase in total operating costs, although the increase was stair-stepped in case of DLA system mainly due to addition of booster pump, fuel, and an employee at 3.2 km and 6.4 km transport distance. Increase in application rate caused the TWA system cost to drop more than the DLA system at any given distance mainly due to the variable cost being higher for the TWA system. Overall, the total operating costs were lower for the DLA system when compared to the TWA system for the three corresponding manure application rates. Data presented in this paper is a partial analysis of the total costs as it only considers transport and application costs, and does not include several additional incidental costs.


Kapil Arora is a Field Agricultural Engineer for over 15 years and Kelvin Leibold is a Farm Management Field Specialist for over 30 years with Iowa State University in the Department of Extension and Outreach. Kapil Arora holds a Master and a Ph. D. in Agricultural Engineering from Iowa State University and has worked on various issues on manure management including manure distribution. Kelvin Leibold holds a Masters in Farm Management from Iowa State University. Kelvin has authored various papers and articles on farm management topics and is part of the Ag Decision Maker Website at Iowa State University. He has previously authored cost analysis of manure value in the past years. Both presenters will be available at the meeting to make the presentation.


Brian H. Jacobsen1, Latacz-Lohmann2, Luesink, Harry and Michels, Rolf3, Lisa Ståhl4

1Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen, Denmark,

2Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Kiel, Germany

3Wageningen University and Research, The Netherlands

4Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen, Denmark



Natura 2000 areas are designated according to the EU’s Birds and Habitats Directives in order to protect particular habitats and species from deposition of nitrogen caused by ammonia emissions. Livestock farming is the primary source of this pollution. The purpose of the analysis is to compare the costs of reaching the ammonia emission targets for different livestock farms near Natura 2000 sites in the Netherlands, Schleswig-Holstein, and Denmark. The analysis looks at regulatory aspects, the emission requirements and the cost of implementing the technologies to reduce emissions. The selected case farms are a finisher farm, a dairy farm and a broiler farm, and the distance to a Natura 2000 site is 400 metres. In all three countries, a relatively low share of livestock farms is situated near Natura 2000 areas. The regulatory approach is very different in the three countries and key issues are additional deposition from projects, neighbouring livestock farms, the inclusion of background deposition and the critical load levels used. The findings suggest that the requirements near Natura 2000 in many cases can be so high that farms will expand at a different site instead.


He has a M.Sc. from Copenhagen and Reading University as well as a Ph.d. from University of Copenhagen related to Farm Mangemant. His initial work was on economic planning with focus on farmers’ decision-making behaviour. Current research deals with environmental economics and the costs of reducing N-leaching, ammonia emission and emission of green house gasses from agriculture. Lately research into the costs of handling animal manure using separation techniques and the introduction of new technologies in organic farming has been carried out. Current research include analysing measures and costs related to the implementation of the Water Framework Directive in Denmark and reductions of NH3 emissions from Agriculture.


Ringetani Maltou1Yonas T. Bahta1

1Department of Agricultural Economics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa



Recurring drought is a major challenge to smaller holder livestock farmers. This study estimates agricultural drought resilience of smallholder livestock farms in the Northern Cape province of South Africa. This study utilized primary data collected from 207 smallholder livestock farmers and an agricultural drought resilience index (ADRI). The results revealed that only 9% of the smallholder livestock farms were resilient for agricultural drought, the rest of the farms were not resilient. It also found that the drought resilience indicator variables were positively correlated with production of livestock in dry and normal calendar years. The policy implications of these findings involve the government and key role players in the industry who should target needy smallholder farmers to build their resilience by enhancing their persistent, adaptability and transformation. Some of the assistance could mean supplying fodder, finance and other farm inputs.


Dr. Yonas T. Bahta is a Senior Researcher in the Department of Agricultural Economics, University of the Free State, South Africa


Enoch Owusu-Sekyere1, Henry Jordaan1

1Department of Agricultural Economics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa



The purpose of this paper was to estimate consumers’ preferences for environmentally sustainable beef products, with the aim of developing and promoting environmentally sustainable products in South Africa. The findings reveal that there is profound preference heterogeneity at segment level for environmentally sustainable beef products. We identified three distinct consumer segments. We demonstrate that socioeconomic factors, public awareness creation and campaigns on threats posed by climate changes, subjective and objective knowledge on environmental sustainability significantly explain consumers’ choice of environmentally sustainable beef products. Furthermore, it is concluded that there are relevant segmental equity issues that need to be addressed when designing environmental sustainability policies to promote ecologically sustainable products. Finally, we demonstrate that there is a potential market for environmentally sustainable products in South Africa.


Dr Owusu-Sekyere Enoch is an agricultural and development economist with the Department of Agricultural Economics, University of the Free State, South Africa. His areas of specialisation include agricultural and resource economics, water footprint and economic productivity assessment, environmental economics, food safety, food quality, food security, food policy, technology adoption, consumer choices and behavioural studies.



The objective of the International Farm Management Association is to further the knowledge and understanding of farm business management and to exchange ideas and information about farm management theory and practice throughout the world. The IFMA is a non profit-making organisation and currently the Association has members in over 50 countries.

Congress Managers

Please contact the team at Conference Design with any questions regarding the Congress.

Photography Credits

Tourism Tasmania, Barnbougle Dunes, Ray Joyce, Health Holden, Graham Freeman, Joe Shemesh, Glenn Gibson, Hobart City Council, Nick Osborne, National Trust Tasmania, Dale Baldwin, Brian Dullaghan, Rob Burnett, Alistair Bett, Alice Bennett, Wai Nang Poon, Chris Crerar, Kathy Leahy, Flow Mountain Bike, Tasmanian Parks & Wildlife Service, James Bowden, Masaaki Aihara, Sean Feennessy, Bruce Irwin, Liz Knox